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The Ins And Outs of How We Do Business

  • How soon must I cancel my appoinment?
    You must cancel your appointment within 24 hours of your scheduled appointment date and time.
  • How long after my carpets are cleaned do I need to wait to use them again?
    Minimual traffic immediately after cleaning is safe, but remember the damp carpets can create slipping hazards. Our target for complete drying time is between 12-24 hours as a guarantee. If your carpets are not dry after 24 hours, please call us back. It is always recommended to create air movement after we clean. If possible, we recommend you to turn up the heat, and turn on any and all fans. The movement of air will expidite the evaporation and decrease the length of drying time.
  • Can I clean my carpets myself?
    Most manufacturer warrantees require a professional to clean your carpets. Professional steam cleaning does provide a deeper and better clean for your carpets. Our recommendations for do-it-yourselfers: (1) try to inspect the rental carpet cleaning machine before taking it home. Look for corrosion, leaks and residue as these things may cause more damage to your carpet. (2) MOST IMPORTANTLY: DO NOT buy, use or take the chemical from the rental stores. Instead, simply use hot water with (1-2 oz of vinagear and a drop of dishsoap PER gallon of water). Well this method can satisfactorily clean the surface of your carpets, we still recommend a deep clean at least every third cleaning. As professionals, with commercial equipment our ability to extract dirt and grime is second to none. Trust us to get you to a clean state, then maintain the life of carpet on your own in between time.
  • Do I need to do anything before or at my appointment?
    We supply all our own water and materials; however, we recommend a good vacumming before we arrive, to ensure the quality of cleaning. We are able to shift or move most small/medium sized furniture. If you want large items moved, we ask you to arrange to have that done before we arrive.
  • Can I get rid of Cannabis or Cigarette smell from my house?
    Yes!! We have a unique product (CLO2), that allows us to eliminate odor and pollutants from the air and even those permeating walls and ceilings. We can remove the unwanted smells and leave a clean and healthy environment for your living, in mere hours. The important reminder, painting hard surfaces can only serve to capture the odors, so call us before you seal the smell. You deserve a clean and healthy living space.
  • What is (CLO2) ?
    The Chlorine Dioxide NetworkTM Overview of Chlorine Dioxide What is Chlorine Dioxide? Chlorine dioxide is a molecule consisting if 1 chlorine atom and 2 oxygen atoms. Abbreviated to CL02. It has a molecular weight of 67.45. It is a gas at normal temperatures and pressures, It has a melting point of -sgoc. It has a boiling point of 11 oc It is yellowish / green and has an odour similar to that of chlorine. It is denser than air and is water soluble at standard temperatures and pressures up to 2500 ppm. It is explosive in air at concentrations > 10% It is prohibited from all form of transport. it is normally generated at the point of appli cation. It will decompose in the presence of UV. high temperatures, and high alkalinity ph 12). Chlorine dioxide is not another form of chlorine. We can draw an analogue to hydrogen and hydrogen cyanide. they are both gases, have the same first name. but completely different properties. So too with chlorine dioxide and chlorine, indeed one molecule does make a big difference. Chlorine Dioxide iS defined in the USA as having "no elemental free chlorine" hence it does not chlorinate. It is because of this fact and the amazing chemistry of chlorine dioxide that it is slowly becoming an important tool in disinfection and oxidation in the world to-day. The physical and chemical properties of chlorine dioxide outline below will unravel its amazing capabilities. Chlorine dioxide does not dissociate in water. It stays as chlorine dioxide therefore its ability to operate as a disinfectant / sanitizer is independent of pH. Chlorine dioxide is an oxidant with a low redox potential. It has a redox potential of +0.95 mV compared to chlorine of +1.36 mV. There is no relationship between redox and disinfecting efficacy. Chlorine dioxide has a few specific chemical reactions. From this property a number of very interesting properties are derived: It has a very low toxicity rating, indeed some formulations have GRAS status. It is generally regarded as a 'i no - irritant 'i . It is not corrosive as a pure chlorine dioxide solution. Its reactions are selective hence as an oxidant reagent consumption is maximised in the redox reaction not through side reactions. Chlorine dioxide has a very high efficacy against vegetative cells, for example, bacteria: fungi yeasts and molds; viruses; algae; and protozoa. It has little to no effect on human, animal and fish cells. It has been shown to have high efficacy against molluscs and acracides with unconfirmed reports suggesting some action against nematodes. From the above properties it is not surprising then to learn that chlorine dioxide does not constitute a risk against the environment ".The Alliance for Environmental Technology (AET), is a group of 19 North American chemical manufacturers and forest product companies, established to promote proven and practical technologies to raise the environmental awareness has indicated that the "environmental risks of a modern paper mill using chlorine dioxide are INSIGNIFICANT." The low oxidation potential of chlorine dioxide means that it can penetrate biofilm and indeed chlorine dioxide has been proven as the MOST effective chemical against biofilm. This has now been recognized by numerous organisations eg. Institute of Food Technologists in their report entitled "Microbial Attachment and Biofilm formation-A Scientific Summary , July '94 Food Technology. It has been clinically demonstrated that the presence of biofilm is the critical step in the infection pathway of legionellae. A simple and elegant solution is available in chlorine dioxide to overcome the problems related to having biofilm in a system. In terms of legionella control the singles biggest problem is the formation of cysts, in the biofilm. Only chlorine dioxide and ozone have the capability of inactivating cysts!. Pulse dosing of a disinfectant is about a 1000 times more effective for biofilm control than low level continuous dosing. CAUTION, is advised when one is running disinfection/sanitising programme during which one is eroding away the biofilm—theory and practice are indeed different bed mates. chlorine dioxide is a factor lower in dosage for the same efficacy against bacteria and fungi when compared against any other standard disinfectant like chlorine, iodine, bromine, hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS), glutraladehyde, phenolic and peroxyacetic acid formulations. finally, chlorine dioxide can be easily and accurately measured in the food plant, potable water plant and for environmental applications. No other disinfectant / oxidiser can make this claim hence chlorine dioxide can easily meet GMP, HACCP, SQF or any other quality food safety management system or environmental system for consistency of performance. In conclusion, therefore we have a disinfectant / sanitizer which is an oxidant with few chemical reactions, no pH limitations, very low toxicity, worldwide approval for drinking water, very high efficacy against micro-organisms, has a strong and measurable residual. The product when applied at use concentration in water will not corrode equipment; will not produce an environment harmful to workers or consumers. Truly a wonderful product but it is not a magic bullet and it cannot solve all problems. We have examined the properties of chlorine dioxide that make it close to being the n ideal" biocide, however, the fact that it is a gas which cannot be compressed without exploding seemingly reduces its availability to be used. Chlorine Dioxide Timeline 1811 first discovered by Sir Humphrey Davey. 1944 Fist commercial application. Used as a Biocide / Taste and Odour Control agent in domestic water at Niagara Falls in the USA. 1977 Three thousand municipal water systems achieving biological control using chlorine dioxide. 198(Ys chlorine dioxide gradually replacing chlorine in many industries. o Pulp and Paper industry as a bleaching agent. Industrial water treatment as a biocide and as an odour control agent. c Food processing as a sanitizer. 199(Ys increasing used for the secondary disinfection of potable water. 2001 As the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the United States after the anthrax attacks. 2005 Used after Hurricane Katrina to eradicate dangerous mold from house inundated by water from massive flooding. 2008 First patent to produce C02 with a simple tablet (Globalex patent) . 2009 Used to prevent against HINI flu. 2011 New patent to produce C102 with a simple tablet — 2 years stability - 12% concentration (Globalex patent) Chlorine Dioxide: The "Ideal" Biocide Chlorine dioxide is an extremely effective disinfectant, which rapidly kills bacteria, viruses, and Giardia, and is also effective against Cryptosporidium. C102 also improves taste and odour, destroys sulfides, cyanides, and phenols, controls algae, and neutralizes iron and manganese ions. It is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm (parts per million) and over a wide pH rang. It is 10 times more soluble in water than chlorine, even in cold water. Unlike iodine, chlorine dioxide has no adverse effects on thyroid function. Chlorine dioxide is widely used by municipal water treatment facilities. The term "chlorine dioxide" is misleading because chlorine is not the active element. Chlorine dioxide is an oxidizing, not a chlorinating agent. C102 penetrates the cell wall and reacts with amino acids and the cytoplasm within the cell, killing the microorganism. Then by-product of this reaction is chlorite, which is harmless to humans. For the super performance characteristics, chlorine dioxide has been described as the "ideal" biocide. It is now included in many drinking water hygiene programs around the globe. Complete testing has confirmed the safety of chlorine dioxide. This includes extensive studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). Chlorine dioxide has been recognized by World Health Organization (WHO) as the most effective Al disinfecting reagent. Its usage was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environment Protection Agency (EPA). Its status is also seen in the Report of FAO Codex Alimentarius, Food additive details Chlorine Dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is approved and recommended by EPA as an environmental friendly drinking water additive to replace chlorine. Chlorine dioxide has been called the "ideal" biocide for a number of reasons: It works against a wide variety of bacteria, yeasts, viruses, fungi, protozoa, spores, mold, mildews, and other microbes. It exhibits rapid kill of target organisms, often in seconds. It is effective at low concentrations and over a wide pH range. It biodegrades in the environment Unlike chlorine, it does not generate harmful by-products. Chlorine Dioxide Germicidal Spectrum Below table of some of organisms that chlorine dioxide has been tested with. Chlorine dioxide has proven effective at eliminating a wide range of organisms. Bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 Listeria monocytogenes F4248 Listeria monocytogenes F5069 Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes LCDC-81•886 Listeria monocytogenes Scott A Methicillin•resistant Staphylococcus au reus (M RSA) Multiple Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium (MDRS) Mycobacterium bovis Mycobacterium fortuitum Pediococcus acidilactici PH3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella Salmonella spp. Salmonella Agona Salmonella Anatum Group E Salmonella Choleraesins ATr.c IAn76 Tuberculosis Vancomycin•resistant Enterococcus faecalis(VRE) Vibrio strain Da-2 Vibrio strain Sr-3 Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pestis Yersinia ruckerii ATCC 29473 Viruses Blakeslea trispora gordetella bronchiseptica Brucella suis Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia pseudomallei Campylobacterjejuni Clostridium botulinum Corynebacterium bovis Coxiella burneti (Q-fever) E. coli ATCC 11229 E. coli ATCC 51739 E. coli K12 E. coli 0157:H7 13888 E. coli 0157:H7 204? E. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43895 E. coli 0157:H7 EDL933 coli 0157:H7 G5303 coli 0157+87 0.7977 Ade novirus Type 40 Canine Parvovirus Coronavirus Feline Calici Virus Foot and Mouth disease Hantavirus Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus Algae/Fungi/MoId/Yeast Altemaria altemata Erwinia carotovora (soft rot) Franscicella tularensis Fusarium sambucinum (dry rot) Fusarium solani var. coeruleum (dry rot) Helicobacter pylori Helminthosporium solani (silver scurf) Klebsiella pneumonia Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL 81910 Lactobacillus brevis Lactobacillus buchneri Lactobacillus plantarum Legionella Legionella pneumophila Leuconostoc citreum TP885 Salmonella choleraesuis salmonella Enterica (PT30) BAA-1045 Salmonella Enterica S. Enteritidis Salmonella Enterica S. 'aviana Salmonella Enterica S.Montevideo Salmonella Enteritidis E190-88 Salmonella Javiana Salmonella newport Salmonella Typhimurium C133117 Salmonella Anatum Group E Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 Sta h lococcus faecalisATCC 344 Aspergillus aeneus Aspergillus aurolatus Aspergillus bru nneo-u niseriatus Aspergillus caespitosus Aspergillus cervinus Aspergillus clavatonanicus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus egyptiacus Aspergillus elongatus Aspergillus fischeri Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus giganteus Aspergillus longivesica As illus n' r Aspergillus ochraceus Mucor flaws Bacillus megaterium Aspergillus parvathecius Mucor indicus Geobacillus stea rothermophilus ATCC 12980/7953 Aspergillus sydowii Mucor mucedo Geobacillus stea rothermophilus VHP As illus un uis Mucor rademosus Bacillus thurin iensis Aspergillus ustus Mucor ramosissimus Chemical Decontamination Aspergillus versicolor Mucor saturnus Mustard Gas IS s ecles Penicillium ch enum Ricin Toxin Ca ndida Penicillium di itatum dihydronicotinam ide ade nine d inucleotide Candida albicans Penicillium herquei microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Candida dubliniensis Penicillium spp. cylindrospermopsin (CYN) Ca ndida maltose Candida parapsilosis Phormidium boneri Pichia pastoris Beta Lactams Amoxicillin Ca ndida sake Poitrasia circinans Amplicillin Candida so ae Rhizo so ae Cefadroxil Ca ndida spp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cefazolin Candida tropicalis Stachybotrys chartarum Cephalexin Candida viswanathil T-ment athlete's foot fun us Iml enem Chaetomium globosum Bacterial Spores Penicillin G Clados rium clados rioides Al • obacillus acidoterrestris Penicillin V Deba m etchellsii Bacillus co ulans Pro tozoa Eurotium spp. Bacillus anthracis Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts Fusarium solani Bacillus anthracis Ames Chironomid larvae Lodderom ces elon s orus Mucor circinelloides Bacillus atro haeus Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 49337 Micros oridia Encephalitozoon intestinalis Disinfection By-Products of Chlorine Dioxide The disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine dioxide reactions are chlorite (C102') and chlorate (CIOA-) and eventually chloride (CIO. The fate of any DBPs depends largely on the conditions at the time, concentration, temperature and the presence of other molecules. Generally, it is the concentration of chlorite residuals that is the "monitored" DPB of chlorine dioxide. Modern generation systems are able to monitor the downstream residual DBP and adjust the dose rate to ensure that environmental limits are not breached. In special cases, downstream reactions can be used to remove excess chlorite residual from the water stream. It is important to note that the DPBs of chlorine dioxide are easily managed with the correct experience and advice, and do not present nearly the same scale of problems as found with other biocide. Unlike ozone, chlorine dioxide does not oxidise bromide ion (Br-) to bromate ion (Br03-). Additionally, chlorine dioxide does not produce large amounts of aldehydes, ketones, or other DBPs that originate from the ozonisation of organic substances. Approvals and Registrations for the use of Chlorine Dioxide USA Environment Protection Agency (EPA) EPA approval for disinfectant / sanitizer with applications in food processing plants. EPA approval for disinfectant of environmental surfaces such as floor, walls and ceiling in food processing plants, such as poultry, fish, meat, and in restaurants, dairies, bottling plants and breweries. EPA approval for a terminal sanitising rinse for food contact surface in food processing plants, such as poultry, fish, meat, and in restaurants, dairies, bottling plants and breweries. EPA approval for a sanitising rinse of uncut, unpeeled fruits and vegetables, at 5 ppm followed by a potable tap water rinse. EPA approval for bacteriostatic in ice making plants and machinery. EPA approval for treatment of stored potable water, at 5 ppm, for drinking water. EPA bactericidal and fungicidal approval for hard non-porous surfaces in hospitals laboratories and medical environments. EPA bactericidal and fungicidal approval for instruments in hospital and dental environment (Pending). EPA bactericidal approval as a dental pumice disinfectant. EPA approval for general disinfectant and deodorization of animal confinement building, such as poultry, swine, barns and kennels. EPA approval for the disinfection and deodorisation of ventilation systems and air conditioning duct work. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) FDA approval as a terminal sanitising rinse, not requiring a water rinse, on all food contact surface. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) P-1 approval for bacterial and mould control in federally inspected meat and poultry processing plants for environmental surfaces. D-2 approval as terminal sanitising rinse not requiring a water flush, on all food contact surfaces in food processing plant. 3-D approval for washing fruits and vegetables that are used as ingredients of meat, poultry and rabbit products by a potable water rinse. G-S approval for cooling and retort water treatment. Eu Codex Alimentarius For use as an anti-microbial for incidental contact on food or surfaces that the food comes into contact with. UK Government Approved by the UK Secretary of State for the Environment under Regulation 25 of the Water Supply (Water Quality) (Amendments) Regulations 1991 (also in Scotland). Approved as a disinfectant for service reservoirs, distribution, mains and waterworks apparatus. Approved as a disinfectant and taste and odour control product for use in water that is supplied for drinking, washinB cooling and food production purposes on condition that the combined concentration of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate does not exceed 0.5 ppm entering supply. Approved as a disinfectant by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Secretaries of State for Scotland and Wales for the Purposes of the Diseases of Animals (Approved Disinfectant) Order 1978 (As Amended) with corresponding approvals in Northern Ireland and Eire. Approved for the Control of legionellae. Approved by HS (G)70 for "The Control of legionellae including Legionnaires Disease" and MISC 150 the Technical Supplement to "The Control of legionellae in Hot and Cold Water Systems". Modes of Action of Chlorine Dioxide Micro biocide Action Chlorine dioxide is a stronger disinfectant than chlorine and chloramine. Ozone has great micro biocide effects, but limited residual disinfection capability. Recent research in the United States and Canada demonstrates that chlorine dioxide destroys enteroviruses, E. coli, amoebae and is effective against cryptosporidium cysts (Finch et al., 1997). Chlorine dioxide exists in the water as C102 (little or no dissociation) and thus is able to permeate through bacterial cell membranes and destroy bacterial cells (Junli et. Al, 1977b). its action on viruses involves adsorbing onto and penetrating the protein coat of the viral capsid and reacting with the viral RNA (An RNA virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) its genetic material. THIS nucleic acid is RNA ßsRNA), butmay be RNA ("RNA). Notable human by RNA include influenza, hepa€i€is C, Wesi Nile fever, polio and measles. The ICTV classåies RNA viruses those that belong to Group Ill, Group IV or Group V of the Baltimore classification System Of classifylng and not with DNA intem-tediates in t}-æir Me cycle as RNA with RNA as their genetic material but which include DNA intermediatæ in their c-ßle are Glled and comprise Group VI ef the g:ltimere classification. Notable human retroviruses include HIV-I and HIV-a, the eause afthe disease AIDS. for RNA that expicitly retrovimSeS is ribovin.s.). As a result, the genetic capability of the virus is damaged CJunli et. Al, 1977a). In comparison to chlorine, chlorine dioxide can be more effective as a disinfectant due to the fact that chlorine exists in the water as HOCL or OCL-. As a result, bacterial cell walls are negatively charged and repel these compounds, leading to less penetration and absorption of the disinfectant into the membranes. Oxidant Action The oxidant action of chlorine dioxide often improves the taste, odour, and colour of water. Chlorine dioxide reacts with phenolic compounds, humic substance, organics, and metal ions in the water. For example, iron is oxidized by chlorine dioxide so that it precipitates out of the water in the form of iron hydroxide. The precipitate is then easily removed by filtration. C102 + +10 Cla + cr + Chlorine dioxide reacts with organics, typically by oxidation reactions, and forms few chlorinated organic compounds. Free chlorine, in the presence of organic precursors can form trihalomethanes (THM's) and other halogenated compounds (Aieta and Berg, 1986). Phenolic compounds presents in drinking water are due mainly to contamination from industrial sources. Such molecules, even when present in concentrations of micrograms per litre„ give an unpleasant odour and taste. Chlorine dioxide reacts rapidly with ph enols. This reaction may vary in different systems. The formation of quinones or ch 10 roq uinones The breaking of the aromatic ring and the formati on of aliph atic derivatives. Humic acid, a THM precursor, is oxidized by chlorine dioxide thus minimizing halogenated compound formation in secondary treatment (Aieta and Berg, 1986) Function of Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide can be used as a Disinfectant, Sanitizer, Tuberculocide, Virucide, Fungicide, Algaecide, Slimicide, and Deodorizer. Chlorine dioxide is a powerful oxidising biocide and has been successfully used as a water treatment disinfectant for several decades in many countries. Rapid progress has been made in the technology for generation of the product and knowledge of its reactivity has increased with improved analytical techniques. Chlorine dioxide is a relatively stable radical molecule. It is highly soluble in water, has a boiling point of 1100C, absorbs light and breaks down into C103- and Cl-. Because of its oxidising properties chlorine dioxide acts on Feat, Mn2 + and Noa- but does not act on Cl-, NHand Br- when not exposed to light. These ions are generally part of the chemical composition of natural water. Because of its radical structure, chlorine dioxide has a particular reactivity - totally different from that of chlorine or ozone. The latter behave as electron acceptors or are electrophilic, while chlorine dioxide has a free electron for a homopolar bond based on one of its oxygen. The electrophilic nature of chlorine or hypochloric acid can lead, through reaction of addition or substitution, to the formation of organic species while the radical reactivity of chlorine dioxide mainly results in oxycarbonyls. Generally chlorine dioxide rapidly oxidises phenol type compounds, secondary and tertiary amines, organic sulphides and certain hydrocarbon polycylic aromatics such as benzopyrene, anthracene and benzoathracene. The reaction is slow or non-existent on double carbon bonds, aromatic cores, quinionic and carboxylic structures as well as primary amines and urea. The oxidising properties and the radical nature of chlorine dioxide make it an excellent virucidal and bactericidal agent in a large pH range. The most probable explanation is that in the alkaline media the permeability of living cell walls to gaseous chlorine dioxide radicals seems to be increased allowing an easier access to vital molecules. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with vital amino acids is one of the dominant processes of its action on bacteria and viruses. Chlorine dioxide is efficient against viruses, bacteria and protozoan clumps usually found in raw water. A rise in pH level further increase its action against f2 bacteriophages, amoebic clumps, polioviruses and anterovirus. It is efficient against Giardia and has an excellent biocide effect against Cryptosporidia which are resistant to chlorine and chloromines. It has been demonstrated that C102 has greater persistence than chlorine. In a recent report for dosages 3 times lower than those of chlorine at the station outlet, the residual of C02 used alone was always higher than that of Cla which also required 3 extra injections of chlorine in the distribution system. The reduction of bad tastes and odour with C102 is the result of the elimination of algae and on the negligible formation of organo-chlorinated derivatives. The latter formed under chlorination give rise to very unpleasant odours. By its action on dissolved organic materials, without the formation of organic halogen compounds, C102 limits problems of taste and colour. In addition the low dosages used in post disinfection are an advantage. When chlorine dioxide replaces chlorine in a system it may take up to 15 days for the benefits of the change to become apparent. Changes should be made gradually to avoid problems of a sudden release of slime into the system. Markets & Applications Chlorine dioxide has a wide range of applications including: Human Water Systems Treatment of Potable Water for Human Consumption Water Storage Systems Aboard Aircraft, Boats, RV's and Off-Shore Oil Rigs Municipal Well Waters Swimming Pools &Spas Industrial Industrial water treatment Cooling and process water microbiological control Wastewater disinfection Cooling Towers Treatment of Ventilation Systems Mollusk control Odors control Iron and manganese removal Phenol oxidation Cyanide destruction Paper & pulp Influent Water Disinfection Backup on generators failures White water slimicide Iron Control Bleaching of specialty papers Oil & gas Microbiological control of oil wells and bores Sulfide destruction Pipeline and tank cleaning THM control Taste and odor control Public Places Hospitals Microbiological control Lower risk of MRSA Cleaning Legionella prevention and control Hotels & leisure centers Disinfection of water system Biofilm removal in water system Agricultural Horticulture Disinfection of irrigation water Cleaning of irrigation system Treatment of Agricultural Storage Facilities Treatment of Horticulture Work Area and Benches Treatment of Horticulture Pots and Flats Treatment of Horticulture Cutting Tools Treatment of Horticulture Bulbs Treatment of Greenhouse Glass, Walkways and Under Benches Treatment of Evaporative Coolers Treatment of Retention Basins and Ponds Treatment of Decorative Pools, Fountains and Water Displays Vegetables & fruit washing/processing Food Processing Sanitizing Food Contact Surfaces Sanitizing Non-Food Contact Surfaces Sanitizing Food-Processing Equipment Ice Making Plants and Machinery Ice Manufacture Canning Retort and Pasteurizer Cooling Water Stainless Steel Transfer Lines, Hydro coolers and Pasteurizer Washing fruit and vegetables Washing fish and seafood Washing meat, poultry and processing equipment Extend shelf life and freshness of non-processed fruits and vegetables Process water for canned and frozen packaging Control of bacteria growth and bio fooling Control of salmonella and legionella Disinfection lines, holding tanks and other equipment Disinfect in beverage and water systems and lines Reduction of ammonia nitrogen concentration in recycled water Cleansing and rinsing of bottles Disinfect in beverage and water systems and lines CIP (Cleaning In Place) Livestock Treatment of Drinking Water Disinfection of Animal Confinement Facilities Treatment of Animal Transport Vehicles Deodorization of Animal Holding Rooms, Sick Rooms and Work Rooms Control of Odor and Slime Forming Bacteria in Animal Confinement Facilities Disinfection of Poultry Chiller Water / Carcass Spray Treatment of Egg Room Treatment of Hatching Room Treatment of Incubator Room Treatment of Tray Washing Room and Loading Platform Treatment of Chick Room, Chick Grading Box and Sexing Room Hand Dip for Poultry Workers Shoe Bath Use Aquaculture Live Fish Transport: Transport Water, Disease treatment during holding Disease prevention treatment Fish larval rearing Prawn larval rearing Spraying in feeds Treatment of diseases Fishing boats/Wholesale/Retail Dipping de-scaled and gutted fish Spray / Dipping on fish and prawns In sorting / grading water for prawns Ice manufacture Disinfection of display cabinet Frequently Asked Questions of Chlorine Dioxide Has chlorine dioxide been used before? Chlorine dioxide has been recognized as an effective biocide for decades, and is used in a range of hygiene-related applications worldwide. Municipal water systems have used chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for over 50 years. Why couldn't I use chlorine dioxide before? Prior to various chlorine dioxide delivery agent products, expensive mechanical generators or relatively impure "stabilized" solutions were the only ways to make chlorine dioxide. The expense of capital equipment and the corrosiveness of the lower quality solutions prohibited the development of many horticultural applications. Is chlorine dioxide safe? The Niagara Falls New York water treatment plant first used chlorine dioxide for drinking water disinfection in 1944. Currently, there are approximately 400 — 500 water treatment plants in the United States and over 1000 in Europe utilizing C102 to purify municipal drinking water systems. Numerous studies have shown chlorine dioxide, when used at the appropriate concentrations, has no adverse health effects, either by skin contact or ingestion. Is chlorine dioxide toxic? Fifty years of worker experience has demonstrated that C102 is a safe compound when handled properly. World-wide, nearly 4.5 million pounds per day of chlorine dioxide are used in the production of pulp and paper. However, as with any and all disinfectant chemicals, if handled improperly, or consumed internally or absorbed or subjected to prolonged exposure, C02 can be toxic. However, it is also this toxicity that makes C02 a good water disinfectant agent. Is chlorine dioxide environmentally friendly and does it create harmful by-products? Chlorine dioxide is far more environmentally friendly than other oxidizing biocides and disinfectants including chlorine and bromine. Substituting chlorine dioxide for chlorine eliminates the formation of toxic halogenated disinfection by-products including trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated compounds that are harmful to the environment. In fact chlorine dioxide actually helps to remove substances that can form trihalomethanes. The disinfection is by oxidation as chlorine dioxide does not have either addition or substitution reactions associated with its chemistry. What methods are used to detected chlorine dioxide? Chlorine dioxide can be detected in several ways. Some of these methods such as DPD, Amperometric, and Iodometric are standardized, widely accepted and used. Is Chlorine Dioxide expensive? When compared to the cost of chlorine, the cost of C102 is lower comparing efficiency and high range desinfection. However in those instances in which chlorine is not the preferred regulatory or environmental alternative, C102 is a very attractive alternative. The costs are also less than that of other alternatives like ozone which can also be used for water treatment. Can Chlorine Dioxide be stored safely? No because explosive gas in the air (10%). Globalex provide a safety solution to produce "just in time". How much is the Permissible Exposure Limit of chlorine dioxide? The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set safe exposure limits of 0.3 ppm (0.9 mg/m3 ) for 15 minutes and a time-weighted average of 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3) for 8 hours of contact with chlorine dioxide gas. What are advantages and disadvantages of chlorine dioxide? Advantages: effective against a wide variety of bacteria, yeasts, viruses, fungi, protozoa, spores, molds, mildews, Cryptosporidium, algae and is more potent than chlorine over a short contact time destroys biofilms effective over wide pH (3.5 to 11) biodegradability in the environment prevents trihalomethanes (THM's) and bromate formation does not chlorinate organics readily dissolves in water and does not react with ammonia does not react with water to form free chlorine and hypochlorus acid does not react with water to form free chlorine is less corrosive than chlorine Selective oxidation reactions Cheaper than Ozone and more effective for odour, colour, bad taste, phenols reduction, iron and manganese reduction Disadvantages: decomposes in sunlight must be generated on-site What is the difference between CLOZ generator and tablets? Generators: the generators are efficient for spot treatment in water. First step treatment or 2n step. The CLOZ cannot stay into the water and naturally the gas goes away quickly. The gas is produced by a reaction with 2 powders or with a liquid. the mix must be very sharp to have a good production gas. Also the qualities of chemicals components are determinant to have a stable production. It is not always the case and the generators are operational for big volumes water treatment. • once the gas is produced it must insert without delay into the water to be treated. The modulation on production is not "Just in Time and on demand". C102 gas is explosive when it is in contact with air (10%). Tablets: the tablets produce a sharp level of CLOZ in small or big water volumes. They realise the gas in 3 minutes. the tablets don't equipment or investment to produce the gas. the gas produced is made by chemical reaction and the bubbles have only some micron diameter : also it give a resident factor. The gas can travel with the water and operate into the network or tanks. The disinfection is preserved from recontamination after treatment. the tablets don't energy to produce gas and can be used in many places. the tablets can easily be transported and the storage is possible for years. Easy to produce gas without risk. The operators are exposed because the gas is only realised into the water. the tablet is not inflammable and not dangerous to manipulate. economic because gas resident many days (spend when in touch with needed) Only Globalex tablets produce CLOZ only. Inorganic Reactions: l. For iodometric analysis 2C102+ 21 - 12 Oxidation of iron C102+ Feo NaOH + H20 Fe (OH)3 NaC102 Oxidation of manganese 2002 + MnS04 + 4NaOH -i Mn02+ 2NaC102 + Na2S04 + 21-420 Oxidation of sodium sulfide 2C102 + 2NazS 2NaCl + Na2S04+ S Oxidation of nitrogen oxide pollutant 2NO + C102 H20 N02+ HN03 HCI Gas phase reaction with fluorine F2 2002 2FC102 In alkaline solution 2002 + 201-r H20 8. Aluminum, magnesium, zinc & cadmium react with C102 M + xC102 9. Disproportionation of chlorite depends upon chlorides present, pH, and ratio of ingredients + 4H+ + Cl- + 2002 + + 2H+ + H20 5002- + 4H+ + a - + 2H20 With hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent in commercial production of chlorite 2C102+ H202 + 2NaOH + 2NaC102 + 2H20 + 02 A highly colored complex is formed when C102 is dissolved in an aqueous solution of barium chlorite C102 * C102-9 C1204 Organic Reactions: l. With organic compounds in water •aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones & quinones With olefins aldehydes, epoxides, chlorohydrins, dichloro-derivatives, and chloro-and unsaturated ketones. With ethylenic double bonds ketones, epoxides, alcohols With benzene no reaction With toluene Chg, CH2Cl, CH20H With anthracene 450 —Y anthraquinone, l, 4-dichloroanthracene With phenanthrene diphenic acid, 9-chlorophenanthrene With 3, 4-benzopyrene + quinones, traces of chlorinated benzopyrene (no longer considered carcinogenic) With carboxylic and sulfonic functions no reaction With aldehydes carboxylic acids 11 . With ketones alcohols With aliphatic amines primary —5 slow or no reaction secondary slow or no reaction tertiary rupture of CN bond, no N-oxides formed With triethylamine + 2002 (C2H5)2NH + 2002- + CH3CHO + 2H+ With phenol —Y P-benzoquinone, 2 chlorobenzoquinone Excess C102 with phenol maleic acid, oxalic acid With thiophenols sulfonic acids With tocopherol demethylated derivatives 18, With saturated acids + no reaction With anhydrides no reaction but catalyzes hydrolysis With amino acids: glycine, leucine, serine, alanine, phenylalamine, valine, hydroxyproline, phenylaminoacetec, aspartic, glutamic acids. little, or no reaction With amino acids containing sulfur reactive With methionine —Y sulfoxide sulfone With aromatic amino acids —Y reactive With tyrosine —Y dopaquinone, dopachrome With tryptophan idoxyl, isatine, indigo red, trace chlorinated products With thiamine slow reaction With keratin —Y hydrosoluble acids With carbohydrates CHO and CH20H carboxylic functions With vanillin pH4 monomethyl ester, _-formylmuconic acid With pectic acid mucic acid, tartaric acid, galacturonic acid With chlorophyll and plant dyes —Y color removed. With latex and vinyl enamels delays polymerization With napthaline no reaction With ethanol no reaction With biacetyl —5 acetic acid, carbon dioxide With 2,3-butaneodiol —5 acetic acid, carbon dioxide With cyclohexene aldehydes, carboxylic acids, epoxides, alcohols, halides, dienes, ketones With maleic acid no reaction With fumaric acid —5 no reaction With crotonic acid no reaction With cyanides —5 oxidized With nitrites —5 oxidized With sulfides —5 oxidized Hydrocarbons of longer chain length than Chare the most oxydable by C102. The organic compounds most reactive with C102 are tertiary amines and phenols. Unsaturated fatty acids and their esters are generally oxidized at the double bond. C102 DOES NOT REACT WITH: hippuric acid, cinnamic acid, betaine, creatine, alanine, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, asparaginic acid, asparagine, glutaminic acid, serine, hydroxyproline, taurine, aliphatically combined NH2 groups, amido and imido groups, HO groups in alcohols and HO acids, free or esterified C02H groups in mono and polybasic acids, nitrile groups, the CH2 groups in homologous series, ring systems such as CsH6, C10H8, cyclohexane, and the salts of C5H5N, quinoline and piperidine. Most aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons do not react with C102 under normal water treatment conditions, unless they contain specific reactive groups. Alcohols are resistant at neutral pH, but under conditions of very low pH, high temperatures or high concentrations, alcohols can react to produce their corresponding aldehydes or carboxylic acids. C102 - , chlorite, the reduction product of C102, although a less powerful oxidant, is used to react with many malodorous and highly toxic compounds such as unsaturated aldehydes, mercaptans, thioethers, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and nitrogen dioxide.

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